Production of marketable bread in the Oryol province was conducted mainly in the landlords’ economies that sold the crop to buyers for export abroad or to the northern regions of Russia, and only partially for sales inside the province. The peasants also brought a grown crop in cities, but this source of grain could not be significant at low yield and a significant proportion of the crop sold by peasants to buyers immediately after cleaning for paying taxes.
Thus, in the grain market of the Oryol province simultaneously there were two oncoming flows: the export of large quantities of grain and flour and the import small batches of grain for retail and large in the milling area. The province was not a closed grain market and was part of the economic organism of the country.
World War introduced some new features to the state of rural farm province, outlined new trends in its development. Most a significant factor was the outflow of labor due to mobilization, which caused a rise in wage labor and hit mainly by that 10% farms in which it was used. With a reduction in the number of workers and the rise in price, the price of them has risen very high, which is essentially increased the cost of landowners in the production of marketable bread. But also abandon their households by limiting them to their own needs, like peasants, landlords could not, needing money for debt payments. The biggest challenge she created for landlord saving labor shortage, has become the high cost of horse-drawn carting Usually, the bread buyers went round the estates themselves, forming lots grains. In the summer of 1915 and 1916, despite the high price of bread and the shortage it was not in the cities, the buyers were due to difficulties with the export42.
Merchants agreed to pay landowners only for delivered bread43. Despite the fact that by 1916 the fee for the cart has increased 5-6 times44, the peasants are reluctant agreed to this job because of the high costs of forage and equipment a convoy, as well as not having the confidence that they will find everything necessary in the city45. It should be noted that the pre-war low cost of carrying (3-4 kopecks per pood) 46 was the consequence of the peasant’s constant acute need of money for payments urgent payments. The situation during the war took such a turn that in 1916-1917 the main reason for the lack of bread in the cities is the local newspapers seen in a disadvantage for landowners to export it.
Under the conditions of agrarian overpopulation, the call of the peasants for military service could not immediately cause an acute shortage of workers in the farm and affect its marketability. The first mobilization, the former most large-scale, almost everywhere passed after the end of the harvest 1914 year, a little reflected on the sowing of winter crops. Complaints about the lack of workers are recorded only after the mobilization of the end of August 191647.